Lawson’s Gimpy Groin

Assessing Shaq Lawson’s latest injury and impact for Sunday’s showdown against the Atlanta Falcons.

It was reported that Shaq Lawson injured his groin in practice Thursday and is now a game time decision for Sunday against Atlanta. Lawson has been on a tear this season in limited action, totaling 10 tackles, 2 sacks, nearly equaling his output from last year. He has begun to live up to draft expectations coming out of Clemson in 2016 and is a reason why the Bills defense has returned to top form this season.

As Lawson is a game time decision on Sunday, it would be better to understand what a groin injury is and how it affects his play. The groin is a series of muscles that attach from the lower hip in the hip crease to the inside portion of the thigh. These muscles assist in bringing the leg to midline, flexing the hip up, and internally/externally rotating the hip. These actions are vital to the actions of the defensive end with regards to shuffling, running, and pivoting. This is typically seen when trying to run down a player or having to stop suddenly. This can also be seen during eccentric contraction of the adductors which is seen during blocking and shuffling along the line.

groin_injuries.jpgIllustration 1: Credit: physioworks.com.au

Lawson reports that his groin is sore and that he will be alright. Despite a positive outlook from Lawson, it is still beneficial to understand how the groin is injured. Typically, the groin muscles are injured when the individual is sprinting or changing directions quickly. As this is a soft tissue injury, there are various grades that the muscle strain can be broken down into to assess severity based on location and mechanism of injury.

Grade 1 involves an injury to the area due to overloading the area, causing microtears and weakening the anchor point, causing pain and inflammation. This is usually a week-to-week injury and if rehabbed properly, should not be an issue long term. The injury typically is seen more in the muscle belly, which is the meaty portion of the muscle. Pain may be felt in the inner thigh or in the groin itself if the muscle is overloaded.

Grade 2 involves a partial tear to the muscle belly or attachment point leading to an inability to walk normally, much less perform the duties of the position. This injury takes longer, anywhere from 4-8 weeks based on severity and must be managed conservatively. Typically, injuries closer to the attachment points can become more chronic and lead to extended time missed. This is due to the nature of the muscle having to pull on the anchor in order to function properly. If the anchor point is not secure, pain and ineffective use of the muscle continue to occur.

Grade 3 typically involves tearing of the attachments closer to the femur, which is known as the distal insertion points. Commonly, the muscle is torn partially or fully away from the bone, leading to surgical intervention. These type of injuries do not happen often, but as with any muscle injury, can occur.

It is not known what caused Lawson’s injury, but it is certainly significant enough to cause him to be a game time decision. I believe that Lawson’s groin injury is a Grade 1, supported by the remark that it is sore and that he will be alright. An athlete knows his body best and barring any re-injury during warm ups, should play Sunday. There is always the risk to increase the severity by playing through, but with proper stretching and warm ups, along with the continued limited snap count, Lawson should be fine. Considering that Lawson has been playing up to the level we expected when drafted, it will be beneficial to have him pressuring Matt Ryan and the Falcons offense. This is a winnable game if the Bills play to the level they did last week against a very good Broncos team. Continue to check back for updates and further analysis regarding Bills injuries, GO BILLS!!

Week 3 Recap- Broncos

Analyzing the Buffalo Bills injury report following the Week 3 win over the Denver Broncos.

The Buffalo Bills stole a crucial win from the Denver Broncos on Sunday, winning 26-16 during possibly the hottest game ever in Buffalo. The Bills played a solid game despite some parts of the first half that were sloppy. Tyrod Taylor pulled it together and moved the ball well, giving up no interceptions, fumbles, or making any poor choices. I do not believe he is the long term starter for this team, but he is what will work for now until Nathan Peterman develops or the Bills draft a QB next year.

Breaking down this week’s Buffalo Bill’s injury report, well, there’s not much to go over. Sunday’s game showed the first time in recent memory where a player did not go down with injury for either side. As I was at the insanely hot game Sunday, I did not have the vantage points that I normally have on TV. One Bills player did get assessed by training staff but was able to walk off on their own power. This indicates that either they were possibly dealing with cramping or got banged up. Considering the heat Sunday, cramping is the likely culprit.

There are not any new additions to the Bills injury report with many subtractions from last week. Finding their way off the injury report is S Colt Anderson, TE Charles Clay, DE Shaq Lawson, WR Kaelin Clay, LB Deon Lacey, LB Matt Milano, and TE Nick O’Leary. All of these players were dealing with a variety of complaints that do not appear to be long term issues. One note that I would like to make is Shaq Lawson. It was reported that he was dealing with a nerve contusion last week which affected his foot. As I thought previously, it did not affect his overall play with 1 solo tackle, 1 tackle for loss, 1 sack, and 1 QB hit. While he did not light up the box score in previous games, he still played in 60% of the snaps, which is in line with the other defensive starters. I do not expect that this injury will reappear again this season.

Those currently on the injury report include LB Lorenzo Alexander and DT Kyle Williams due to rest. Two veterans that give it their all every Sunday, they benefit more from rest than practice. Next up is LeSean McCoy with a wrist injury. This is 3 weeks now that he has been dealing with a wrist injury sustained in the home opener when diving into the end zone. He may be dealing with a mild wrist sprain that the team wants to ensure that does not get worse. I do not believe that this injury is any worse or is part of something larger at this time.

A positive sign for this week is that DT Jerel Worthy is listed as a full participant in practice. This is a huge step forward from the past several weeks. If you recall, Worthy sustained a significant concussion in the preseason finale against the Lions. Considering that he is a full participant indicates that he is in Stage 5 of the concussion protocol. This means that barring any recurrence of symptoms over the next several days, he should be cleared to return to play against the Falcons on Sunday. This is supported by the Bills roster cut of DT Deandre Coleman, signed last week.

DT Marcell Dareus and OT Cordy Glenn have made themselves comfy on the report this week. Dareus was listed as a limited participant. Considering there was video of him last week in an air cast performing upper body work indicates that he continues to deal with a mild lateral ankle sprain. If this injury was significant, he would not have been doing activities in standing and may have had a walking boot, creating more stability. Expect him to play Sunday and shut down the potent Falcons running game.

Finally, OT Cordy Glenn continues to deal with foot/ankle injuries. As I have said before, I continue to maintain that he has instability within the ankle/foot region due to repeatedly spraining the areas. Are these injuries that he could play through if this were the playoffs, quite possibly. However, it is still early in the season and Dion Dawkins held his own against the talented Broncos D-line. I expect the training staff to continue to bring Glenn along slowly to ensure that the O-line has the depth required to get through the season.

I still believe that McDermott is rotating through players more frequently to reduce overuse injuries and keep the integrity of the roster intact. As the season continues on, I will continue to address injuries that occur plus outline any injuries that can become common or chronic. Once again, thank you for reading and look for further updates, GO BILLS!!

Week 3 Injury Breakdown- Broncos

Analyzing the Buffalo Bills injury report for Week 3.

Week 3 is upon us! As we head into the match up at home against the Denver Broncos, I will review the team injury report and breakdown expectations for the players on the report. Unfortunately, the Bills injury report will continue to grow through the season. However, most injuries so far have consisted of minor problems that if managed correctly, will not become a problem long term.

Getting several of the names out of the way early are LB Lorenzo Alexander, RB LeSean McCoy, and DT Jerel Worthy. I address these players first because they are not serious issues or have already been addressed. Alexander is on the list due to rest, McCoy due to his wrist which does not appear to be a serious injury as he was listed as a full participant. Finally, Worthy is still in the league concussion protocol and still not practicing, which likely means he is still having symptoms during regular aerobic activities.

Those carrying over from last weeks injury report are S Colt Anderson, TE Charles Clay, and OT Cordy Glenn. Colt Anderson continues to deal with a foot injury and continues to somehow be on the roster. Clay was on last week due to shoulder complaints; this week is knee, which continues to be a long term issue year after year. Glenn reappears on the list due to re-aggravation of the foot/ankle area.

New to the injury report are DE Shaq Lawson, WR Kaelin Clay, DT Marcell Dareus, LB Deon Lacey, LB Matt Milano, and TE Nick O’Leary. Kaelin Cray is dealing with a foot injury, yet not much is known about the current injury. Clay did suffer a broken foot last year during training camp with the Ravens. He was eventually cut in November from injured reserve and essentially sat out last season. Hopefully, this is not something that will keep him out for long. Deon Lacey, Matt Milano, and Nick O’Leary are all dealing with hamstring injuries which can continue to be tricky due to the demands of their specific positions. Lawson’s injury was detailed greatly in my last post and should not affect him for long term. To note, all were full participants on Friday which indicate that they will most likely play Sunday.

It was reported today that both Cordy Glenn and Marcell Dareus will not play Sunday due to the previously reported injuries. I had initially thought that Dareus’ injury was not major due to the fact that he returned to the game against the Panthers. He most likely sustained a sprained ankle and the team is possibly being cautious to ensure that he will be available later this season. With Dareus ruled out, the Bills signed DeAndre Coleman to the roster. Coleman was in training camp and during the offseason, released during cut down day. Considering that Jerel Worthy and Dareus is out, depth will be crucial to place pressure on the Denver offense and contain the run game.

With Cordy Glenn ruled out of the game Sunday, expect Dion Dawkins and Ryan Groy to see increased playing time. This will be the first true test for Dawkins, which I believe he will step up and fill in, demonstrating why the Bills picked him in the 2nd round. As for what Glenn is dealing with, possibly a foot sprain leading to further instability and pain. There are reports that he has issues with both feet/ankles, but unable to confirm each individual issue as that kind of detail typically isn’t released. At this point, I say keep him out until he is ready to play. I have outlined my thoughts on Glenn in the past, I still maintain that the previous issues are contributing towards this current one.

While missing Glenn and Dareus in the lineup, the depth is finally there to deal with these losses. All of the players except Worthy, Dareus, and Glenn practiced in full on Friday which leads me to believe that most of them will either be ready to play for Sunday or have their snap counts limited. Please continue to ask questions, leave comments, and educate yourself on Buffalo Bills injuries. I continue to be open to ideas and will address injuries that require further explanation. Once again, thank you for your time and GO BILLS!!!

Contusion Confusion

Understanding Shaq Lawson’s nerve contusion including what it means and long term effects.

Shaq Lawson has a nerve contusion. You’re probably thinking, what is a nerve contusion and is this another crazy Bills injury? You’re also thinking, when did this occur and how will this affect him the rest of the season? During today’s post, I will help understand what happened, how it occurs, and long term effects.

First off, let’s break down a contusion. A contusion is some type of injury or blow to an area which can cause restrictions in movement or sensation. Basically a big bruise. However, a typical bruise to the area would cause a black and blue discoloration mark due to superficial blood vessels being disrupted and broken. This can cause pain during touch, muscle/joint movement, and limited mobility. In the case of Shaq, he sustained a nerve contusion, which is more specific.

A nerve contusion is a injury which can cause disruption to the conduction of the nerve. In a case like this, an injury to the area would cause numbness, pain, and weakness. This would present as a pins and needles feeling, significant pain immediately after the injury, and possible partial or temporary loss of control of the muscle that it innervates. Due to recent reports stating that Lawson sustained a nerve contusion of the leg allows me to deduct that he injured the peroneal nerve.

The peroneal nerve branches off the sciatic nerve that branches off the spinal cord. This branch of the nerve innervates the muscles of the lower leg including the anterior tibialis and extensor hallucis/digitorum longus. These, along other muscles, assist in lifting the foot up and in which is known as dorsiflexion and inversion. These muscles are vital for running, cutting, planting; basically everything that Lawson would need to perform during game day.

An injury like this would occur when the outside of the leg gets hit hard during a play such as a tackle or when a body falls on the area. The nerve runs down around the fibula which is the outer bone that makes up part of the outside of the ankle. This area is more associated with high ankle sprains such as what Odell Beckham is recovering from at the moment. While it is listed on the Bills injury report as a foot, this is the area that is being affected via the nerve, hence the designation.

Final question, how will this impact him for the long term outlook? Professionally, I don’t believe that this will be a long term issue, pending unknown severity. I expect him to possibly be limited over the next several days as the nerve continues to heal and will be a possibility to play against the Broncos. He may miss the next game if he has more damage that initially reported. The Bills have done fantastic with managing injuries thus far and I expect this trend to continue.

Thankfully, this injury was not more severe. To understand how severe it could have been, please direct your attention to the Dallas Cowboys roster and find LB Jaylon Smith. As most fans know, Jaylon Smith wrecked his knee and nearly his NFL career in his last college game, tearing his ACL/LCL and causing extensive damage to his peroneal nerve which cost him his entire first season in the NFL. In severe cases such as this, foot drop will occur. Foot drop is seen more commonly in older individuals who have suffered a stroke. These individuals will be fitted with an AFO or ankle foot orthosis which locks or assists the ankle into neutral/slight dorsiflexion allowing the foot to swing through during walking and preventing the foot from dragging. Thankfully, Smith has recovered to be the Cowboys leading tackler, but took nearly 18 months to even have the chance at playing.

While spinal cord injuries do not heal, peripheral nerve injuries can and do heal, with varying levels of success. To keep it simple, the nerve can have 3 stages of injury which impacts healing. The first stage is damage to the outer covering of the nerve which typically heals on its own. The second stage of nerve injury is where the outer covering becomes totally damaged and has disrupted regular nerve function. The final stage of nerve injury is total disruption and severance of the connection. In Lawson’s case, I can comfortably state that he suffered a stage one injury. Jaylon Smith sustained a stage 3 and his recovery was so long due to the nerve having to regenerate which can occur at a rate of 1-5 mm/day based on the size of the nerve. The fact that Smith has returned to such a high level of play is incredible in itself. The fact that Lawson escaped with a relatively minor injury is lucky.

I expect Lawson to continue building off his rookie season and increasing his level of play to be the disruptive defensive end that he was in college. I will continue to update with any changes or new information that occurs. Look for future articles to analyze the Bills injury report for Week 3 and identify any new complaints that require further breakdown. Go Bills!

Week 2 Recap- Panthers

Analyzing Buffalo Bills injuries coming off Week 2 loss against the Panthers.

Well, that game is over. That was a tough one to watch from an offensive standpoint. LeSean McCoy ran for 9 yards and the offense scored 3 points. Not the kind of football that I want to watch nor root for. While the defense kept the Panthers to 9 points in their own house, there are no moral victories. Only upside is that the Bills continue to stay relatively healthy, once again, not sustaining any significant injuries.

Today’s post will consist of any Bills players who sustained any sort injury and breakdown potential ramifications for future games. First up, Marcell Dareus sustained an ankle injury early in the 1st quarter and sat out for some time. Watching the game, there was no injury timeout or replays showing the injury. Considering that Dareus returned to the game, it does not appear to be anything concerning. Best case scenario is that Dareus suffered a mild lateral sprain which was taped up on the sidelines, giving him stability to finish the game. Expect for Dareus to be limited in the next several practices as he recovers and be a full participant next week against Denver.

Next up is CB E.J. Gaines who was down momentarily with a shoulder injury. If you recall, Gaines suffered a shoulder injury that knocked him out of last week’s contest against the Jets. While not confirmed, it appeared to be the same shoulder, believed to the left side. This injury was sustained during a tackle near the end of the 1st quarter. While it was initially reported that his shoulder was not concerning last week, re-injuring the same shoulder now makes it concerning. Considering that it was a direct hit to the area, he may have suffered an AC sprain or possible SC sprain which would limit arm elevation, vital for tackling and batting passes down. Expect to see Gaines be listed on the injury report, too early to tell if he misses next game.

Cordy Glenn was next with an ankle injury sustained in the 2nd half. No video or injury timeout occurred leading to further review, but the fact that Glenn continues to be hampered with foot and ankle injuries is concerning. No updated reports indicate that this may be a multi week injury, but expect Glenn to be out of practice the next several days. It does help that McDermott has been rotating his lineman out to keep them fresh which has allowed Dion Dawkins to get vital playing time in cases such as this. I still believe that Glenn may be dealing with some sort of ankle instability which could lead to further sprains if not conservatively managed.

Two injuries that are not concerning are Kyle Williams going down with an eye injury and Andre Holmes with a chest injury. Both returned to the game quickly indicating that no damage occurred. Williams appeared to suffer a cut above his right eye during a tackle and Holmes appeared to have the wind knocked out of him briefly. Williams is too tough to let an eye laceration slow him down and Holmes still made plays towards the end of the game which allows these injuries to become afterthoughts.

Finally, LeSean McCoy went down with a right wrist injury during a tackle at the end of the 3rd quarter but was able to return. Last week, McCoy reported that his hand went numb during a similar play last week and pulled himself out briefly. Despite his hand going numb and then returning to the game tells me professionally that no structural damage has occurred. What is most likely happening is when McCoy goes down, he may be striking the field with his elbow and hitting his funny bone. When someone hits their funny bone, they are actually directly striking their ulnar nerve which is slightly exposed on the inside part of the elbow. This can cause immediate numbness along with the pins and needles feeling as though the hand fell asleep. McCoy could reduce the incidence by wearing elbow pads, but may be a comfort issue or may limit the ability to cradle the football.

A final note, earlier today, it was reported that Shaq Lawson suffered a nerve contusion during yesterday’s game and has begun to recover. Once again, no injury timeout or detailed video indicating when this occurred. Reports also do not identify the area that the nerve contusion occurred. Until further reports are made, I will have to assume that this is a similar injury that occurred with McCoy mentioned above.

Updates will be made once the official injury report comes out and more information is released. None of these injuries except Glenn’s ankle concern me. I expect players to get injured, miss plays/time, and not always be at 100%. While the results are not what us as fans want, I would rather have a close loss with everyone coming back to play next week than a win with a major player going down with a season ending injury. Expect further articles to briefly analyze Week 2 injuries around the league and updates on any Bills injuries once more information becomes available. As always, willing to answer questions, break down injuries, and educate my fellow fans on injuries occurring with the Buffalo Bills and in the NFL.

Week 2 Injury Breakdown- Panthers

Breaking down the Bills injury report for Week 2 against the Panthers.

Going into Week 2, the Bills continue to look healthy as they travel down to North Carolina to battle McDermott/Beane’s former employer, the Carolina Panthers. While the Bills are not immune to injuries, they still continue to look better than other teams around the league injury wise, losing no big pieces such as the Chiefs and Jaguars did last week.

Breaking down the injury report, DT Jerel Worthy is still out with a concussion from the preseason game against the Lions on 8/31. As he is not practicing, he is still most likely in the early stages of the concussion protocol, most likely on Level 2-3 at best. To refresh, he may be cleared to begin light aerobic activity with watching game film and participating in team meetings. He may also be cleared for lifting and increasing intensity with aerobic activity. Considering he has not been moved to IR with designation to return, it appears as though he is continuing to recover and may be ready by Week 3-4. The fact that he has not recovered as quickly as Tyrod Taylor did indicates that it may be a more severe concussion; also consider positional demands. Though he is not a starting player, he is crucial for depth and can continue to provide effective play in place of the starters.

Those limited in practice are as follows: S Colt Anderson (foot), CB Leonard Johnson (quad) and LB Tanner Vallejo (knee). Thankfully, none of these players are starters, but for a team to be successful, they must have depth. Colt Anderson has rarely seen the field since joining the Bills last year. He has been described as a special teams ace, but has yet to show his array of skills so far. Considering that he has not been outright waived yet, this indicates that the team will continue to wait for his recovery. As for what is ailing him, professionally, I have been unable to truly assess as there is no film or detailed description of injury on him. Leonard Johnson is listed with a quad; due to the position and demands, possibly could be a quad contusion, which is typically known as a deep bruise. This would limit running forward/backwards and prevent planting effectively to perform coverage duties in the secondary. Finally, Tanner Vallejo is listed as a knee and continues to be limited. Early in the preseason, Vallejo sustained a shoulder injury which knocked him out for several preseason games. It is unknown when Vallejo sustained his knee injury, but it was reported that he had a knee scope which indicates that he may have had fraying of the meniscus or a loose body, causing pain and discomfort. As a knee scope is a surgical procedure, as minimal as it is, will still require rehab and rest. He will have to ensure that his knee does not swell up frequently and can adjust to game time activity. Regardless, this is not a good start to Vallejo’s rookie campaign.

Those cleared for full practice were as follows: TE Charles Clay (shoulder), CB E.J. Gaines (shoulder), OT Cordy Glenn (foot), RB LeSean McCoy (wrist/groin), and FB Mike Tolbert (knee). In my previous article, Gaines and McCoy sustained injuries in the win over the Jets that knocked McCoy out briefly and knocked Gaines out for the game. Gaines’ injury was not reported to be serious and does not appear to have any long lasting effects. McCoy is worrisome as he is the force that drives the offense. McCoy stated after the game that he did not injure his wrist severely, but that it went numb briefly during the previous run into the end zone. It has also been reported later that he is dealing with a groin injury that was most likely sustained in practice. While he is a full participant, this is still something that must be watched due to requiring the groin to be ready for bursts and cutting, moves especially crucial to any running back.

Other injuries including Glenn, Tolbert, and Clay do not appear to be serious. While Glenn continues to have issues with his foot, it appears to now be different from the ankle injuries he dealt with at the beginning of training camp. There is not much information regarding the exact ailment; he is able to play, splitting time with Dion Dawkins to keep both lineman fresh and healthy. Clay and Tolbert did not appear to be removed from the Jets game for injury, possibly indicating that they are banged up due to the physical nature of the game. As practice is important, rest is more important. Teams under the current CBA are allowed 14 padded practices during the first 11 weeks of the season and coaches are not required to use all of them. I believe that McDermott will limit padded practices and provide maintenance days for veterans, focusing on proper play calling, technique, and keeping everyone healthy to maintain depth.

The Bills certainly have a winnable game later today. Cam Newton is coming off a rotator cuff tear repair which should not limit him physically, but the rust was evident in Week 1. Add in the fact that McDermott knows the nuances of the Carolina defense and personnel, expect to see the Bills to exploit those weaknesses. Continue to look for updates after the game with injury review, analysis around the league of significant injuries, and any other big news. Thank you for your time and Go Bills!

Week One Recap-Jets

Breaking down the Week One Bills victory over the New York Jets and Bills injuries sustained during today’s contest.

Football is back and Week 1 is in the books! With a solid 21-12 win over the NY Jets, the Bills sit atop of the AFC East due to the Patriots loss Thursday night and Miami not playing due to Hurricane Irma. While it may be short lived, we must enjoy it while we can. The Bills running game looked solid, gaining nearly 200 yards on the ground and moving the ball well throughout the game. As this is an injury blog, I will be reporting the injuries sustained to the Bills during today’s win.

Prior to the game, inactives were Khari Lee, Vladmir Ducasse, Kaelin Clay, Tanner Vallejo, Greg Mabin, Jerel Worthy, and Conor McDermott. Worthy is still in the concussion protocol following the 4th preseason game and Vallejo is out with a knee injury that not much is known about.

During today’s game, only two Bills went down with injury that are worth noting. Early in the 4th quarter, LeSean McCoy dove for the end zone and came up appearing to injure his left wrist. He initially looked to be in significant pain and was assessed in the trainer’s tent. McCoy eventually came out 15 minutes later and appeared to not harbor any ill effects from the injury. More may be known over the next several days, but considering that he reentered the game so quickly signifies that this shouldn’t cause any long term problems.

Shortly after McCoy went down, E.J. Gaines went down with 11 minutes left with a shoulder injury. While there is no video that is available to truly assess what happened, it appeared that it shook up Gaines as he walked on the sidelines with trainers. It appeared that a trainer was assisting in supporting the left shoulder which may indicate instability. Without seeing video, my initial diagnosis may be a sprained shoulder due to direct impact. I expect to have a more concrete diagnosis in the coming days as more information becomes available.

While this is not an injury that occurred during today’s game, I would like to note that rookie Dion Dawkins shared reps with Cordy Glenn throughout today’s game. This was most likely done to expose Dawkins to the pro game along with limiting stress on Glenn’s ankle/foot, which has been well documented, including one of my first posts. I expect to continue to see Glenn dealing with this injury throughout the season and share time with Dawkins in order to keep both lineman healthy.

Buffalo continues to minimize the injuries and keep starters healthy on the field. As expected, there were other injuries around the league including: Jaguars Allen Robinson (Knee), Ravens Danny Woodhead (Hamstring), Cardinals David Johnson (Wrist), and former Bill, now Eagles Ronald Darby (Ankle) all exiting the game. Add in Chiefs Eric Berry (Torn Achilles) and Patriots Danny Amendola (Concussion) from Thursday’s game and there is already a sizable injury list with the afternoon games yet to be played.

Overall, it was a great day for the Bills getting their first win and minimizing injury. This allows them to bring a healthy roster into their Week 2 match up against Cam Newton and the Panthers. While this was a great start to the season over a hapless Jets team, I expect a much tougher test against McDermott and Beane’s former employer. I will continue to provide updates and detail E.J. Gaines injury once more information is know. Thank you for reading and continue to check back for further updates!